We all love to smell good and fresh, majority of us uses fragrance. A body spray, colonge, after shave and perfume. and I often wondered the origin of perfumes and the different types of it as well as the different smell before and after you spray it to your body. With a little bit of research below are some of the information that might help you as well and learn about the origin, the fragrance note, classification of perfumes and etc.
What is Perfume?
The word perfume used today derives from the Latin per fumus, meaning “through smoke.” Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians.
Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord. The notes unfold over time, with the immediate impression of the top note leading to the deeper middle notes, and the base notes gradually appearing as the final stage. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume.
- Top notes: The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes consist of small, light molecules that evaporate quickly. They form a person’s initial impression of a perfume and thus are very important in the selling of a perfume. Also called the head notes.
- Middle notes: The scent of a perfume that emerges just prior to when the top notes dissipate.The middle note compounds form the “heart” or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. They are also called the heart notes.
- Base notes: The scent of a perfume that appears close to the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and “deep” and are usually not perceived until 30 minutes after application.
The scents in the top and middle notes are influenced by the base notes, as well the scents of the base notes will be altered by the type of fragrance materials used as middle notes. Manufacturers of perfumes usually publish perfume notes and typically they present it as fragrance pyramid, with the components listed in imaginative and abstract terms.
What are the Classification of Perfumes?
The Fragrance Wheel developed in 1983 by Michael Edwards, a well-known consultant in the perfume industry designed his own system of fragrance classification after being inspired by a fragrance seminar held by Firmenich.
The Fragrance Wheel is the new classification of perfumes that is usually used in the fragrance industry.
The purpose of this new relatively classification system was initiated to make simpler the fragrance classification and naming scheme, as well as to show the relationships between each individual fragrance family.
The four standard families which consist in Floral, Oriental, Woody and Fresh are are divided into three sub-groups and arranged around a wheel circumferences. The fifth family that makes exception from the rule is the Fougére family which being more “classic” stands in the center of the Fragrance Wheel:
Fragrance Wheel: How to use it
- Step One: Studying the Fragrance Wheel, learn the five main fragrance families represented: Woody, Fresh, Oriental, Floral and Fougere. The only family that does not sub-divide and stands at the center being more classic having a more universal appeal and it combines elements of the other four is Fougere . The others are arranged around the wheel’s circumference.
- Step Two: Examine the sub-groupings in each family. The four other families have each three sub-families in the outer wheel that result when their essence is combined with the family on either side of it. These are: Floral, Soft Floral, Floral Oriental, Oriental,Soft Oriental, Woody Oriental, Mossy Woods, Dry Woods, Citrus, Green and Water.
- Step Three Look up which family four your favorite fragrances belong to. This will help you to learn your own preferred scent family.
- Step Four Use a Fragrance Wheel to help you blend your own scents, as you like. Combine scents from families that overlap to create harmonious perfumes.
What are the Different Concentration in Perfumes?
Perfume types reflect the concentration of aromatic compounds in a solvent, which in fine fragrance is typically ethanol or a mix of water and ethanol. Various sources differ considerably in the definitions of perfume types. The intensity and longevity of a perfume is based on the concentration, intensity and longevity of the aromatic compounds (natural essential oils / perfume oils) used: As the percentage of aromatic compounds increases, so does the intensity and longevity of the scent created. Specific terms are used to describe a fragrance’s approximate concentration by percent/volume of perfume oil, which are typically vague or imprecise. A list of common terms (Perfume-Classification) is as follows:
- Perfume extract, or simply perfume (Extrait): 15-40% (IFRA: typical 20%) aromatic compounds
- Esprit de Parfum (ESdP): 15-30% aromatic compounds, a seldom used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume
- Eau de Parfum (EdP), Parfum de Toilette (PdT): 10-20% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds, sometimes listed as “eau de perfume” or “millésime.” Parfum de Toilette is a less common term that is generally analogous to Eau de Parfum.
- Eau de toilette (EdT): 5-15% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds
- Eau de Cologne (EdC): Chypre citrus type perfumes with 3-8% (typical ~5%) aromatic compounds. “Original Eau de Cologne” is a registered trademark.
- Perfume mist: 3-8% aromatic compounds (typical non-alcohol solvent)
- Splash (EdS) and Aftershave: 1-3% aromatic compounds. “EdS” is a registered trademark.
What are the Solvent types use in Perfumes?
Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil.
Excerpt Taken from Wikipedia.
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